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The digitalisation of the construction industry fuels the application of sophisticated digital adoption in the country. Especially concerning current measures in construction and project management, the acquisition of sufficient data and information will no longer hinder the project execution. Therefore, Building Information Modelling (BIM) become a valuable tool and plays an important role to support the fundamental adoption of digital construction.
BIM is a collaborative process between various project parties, in exchange/ sharing of project information and data thus the project to be handled in an effective and efficient way, starting from conceptual to completion.
There are numerous BIM definitions in the academic arena, highlighting the importance of project information sharing, emphasizing software platforms, focusing in project lifecycles, enhancing project integration and coordination. In IPM context, BIM is referring to:
BIM is not converting CAD to Revit! The idea of BIM is to reduce the rework-duplicating process. Therefore, the workflow must be started from building an information model using BIM platforms such as Revit, BricsCAD, Rhinoceros, Microstation and etc. Then the model will be shared to design engineers to fit in design information such as structural, mechanical and electrical information. Subsequently, the model will be measured by quantity surveyor for adequate costing. Building Information Management came in when the project kickstart. In IPM, BIM is not a Revit Model, BIM is a management tool to enhance project efficiency.
• What is Level of Development (LOD)
Level of Development (LOD) is a development phase in the different systems which is a vital element in the BIM process. It ensures different teams to work in the same direction and creating consistency, so that effective and efficient communication with productivity can be achieved.
LOD implicates the graphical representation (Level of Detail) and the information of an object. LOD may be referred to as Level of Detail rather than Level of Development in some scenarios. For better understanding, the Level of Detail is the quantitative input included in the model, where the Level of Development is the output of the BIM model. Level of Detail indicates the way a model looks while the Level of Development indicates the depth of thinking applied to the model. In short, the Level of Detail is the criteria of the Level of Development.
The Level of Detail is separated in various stages which are from LOD 100 to LOD 500. According to BIM Wiki on Designing Buildings Wiki (UK), the LOD framework defines the following model element content requirements:
✓ LOD 100 (Conceptual Model): The Model Element may be graphically represented in the Model with a symbol or other generic representation, but does not satisfy the requirements for LOD 200. Information related to the Model Element (i.e., cost per square foot, tonnage of HVAC, etc.) can be derived from other Model Elements.
✓ LOD 200 (General Model): The Model Element is graphically represented within the Model as a generic system, object, or assembly with approximate quantities, size, shape, location, and orientation. Non-graphic information may also be attached to the Model Element.
✓ LOD 300 (Detailed Model): The Model Element is graphically represented within the Model as a specific system, object, or assembly in terms of quantity, size, shape, location, and orientation. Non-graphic information may also be attached to the Model Element.
✓ LOD 400 (Fabrication & Assembly Model): The Model Element is graphically represented within the Model as a specific system, object or assembly in terms of size, shape, location, quantity, and orientation with detailing, fabrication, assembly, and installation information. Non-graphic information may also be attached to the Model Element.
✓ LOD 500 (As-Built): The Model Element is a field verified representation in terms of size, shape, location, quantity, and orientation. Non-graphic information may also be attached to the Model Elements.
Ref AIA, Guide, Instructions and Commentary to the 2013 AIA Digital Practice Documents.
For better understanding, general example of LOD levels for “an office table”
✓ LOD 100 = there is an office table (A concept model)
✓ LOD 200 = there is an office table that has nominal space requirement of 1000×1000 (Approximate information)
✓ LOD 300 = there is an office table with drawers and wheels (Detailed information)
✓ LOD 400 = manufacturer and model number (Fabrication & assembly information)
✓ LOD 500 = manufacturer and model number, supplier, date purchased (Field verified as-built model)
BIM Level of Dimension refers to a particular way of associating different types of data with an information model. Connecting additional ‘dimensions’ of data to the information models can give a better understanding of a development project, like when, how much, and how, eventually lead to a more well-timed decision, better outcome, and sustainability. Each dimension has its own purpose as stated below:
✓ 3D: It refers to 3D generated drawings/ graphic modelling
✓ 4D: It is linked to timeline scheduling/ construction sequencing
✓ 5D: It relates to the cost estimation/ budget analysis
✓ 6D: It’s a dimension dedicated to the life cycle management of a building/ project life cycle information
IPM provides BIM consultancy for:
Upon receiving a project enquiry, we require two (2) information as stated below:
EIR referred to the information needed by the employer and the development for the completion of the asset. EIR normally includes the standard method of procedures, roles and responsibilities, BIM delivery plan, schedule, building components, and most importantly the Level of Details. The EIR is important for IPM to plan, design, and execute the BIM management plan for our client.
BIM Execution Plan is designed to address the Employer’s Information Requirements. BEP facilitates the management of information for a BIM project. Basically, BEP clarifies the Pre-Contract and Post-Contract BIM Execution Plan:
✓ Pre-Contract: Setting out the BIM Contract, and determine project milestones in line with project programme.
✓ Post-Contract: Set up the information required in the EIR.